Cấu trúc Too to, Enough to, So that, Such that: Cách dùng & những chú ý

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Bốn cấu trúc Too to, enough to, so that, such that xuất hiện rất thường xuyên ở chương trình học phổ thông cũng như trong các đề thi tiếng Anh. Nhưng để hiểu rõ và sử dụng chính xác từng cấu trúc thì không hề đơn giản chút nào.

Hôm nay mình sẽ cũng các bạn đi tìm hiểu cách dùng, ý nghĩa và bài tập vận dụng chúng nhé.

Cấu trúc Too….to (Quá…để có thể làm gì)

S + be + too + adj + (for somebody) + to + V

S + V + too + adv + (for somebody) + to + V

Too…to để chỉ điều gì đó quá khả năng hoặc quá mức cần thiết, khi đó câu ấy sẽ mang nghĩa phủ định.

Chúng ta cùng xem qua một số ví dụ sau:

  • Một chủ ngữ

She was too tired to walk.

=> Cô ấy đã quá mệt để có thể đi bộ

It was too cold to go out.

=> Trời đã quá lạnh để có thể đi ra ngoài

cấu trúc too to

It was too cold to go out.

  • Hai chủ ngữ: sử dụng từ nối For

The tea was very hot. I couldn’t drink it.

=> The tea was too hot for me to drink.

Her behaviour was very rude. I couldn’t tolerate it.

=> Her behaviour was too rude for me to tolerate.

Chú ý:

Trong trường hợp có hai chủ ngữ, chúng ta thường mắc phải lỗi sau:

Đúng: The tea was too hot for me to drink.

Sai: The tea was too hot for me to drink it.

Cấu trúc Enough to (Đủ….để có thể làm gì)

Tính từ:       S + V + adv + enough + (for somebody) + to + V

Trạng từ:     S + be + adj + enough + (for somebody) + to + V

Danh từ:      S + V/tobe + enough + noun + (for somebody) + to_V

Enough có nghĩa là đủ khả năng để làm gì đó.

Ví dụ:

  • Với tính từ và trạng từ: enough đứng sau

She isn’t tall enough to be a ballet dancer. (Cố ấy không đủ cao để trở thành diễn viên múa ba lê)

Your clothes are big enough to fit me. (Quần áo của bạn đủ to để tôi mặc vừa)

cấu trúc enough to

Your clothes are big enough to fit me.

  • Với danh từ: enough đứng trước

Have you got enough money to buy me a drink? (Bạn có đủ tiền để mua đồ uống cho tôi không?)

Sorry, I haven’t got enough food for everyone. (Xin lỗi, tôi không có đủ thức ăn cho tất cả mọi người)

Cấu trúc So that (Quá…đến nỗi)

  1. Dùng với tính từ

S + be+ so + adj + that + S + V

Ví dụ:

He ate so much food that he became ill.

=> Anh ta ăn quá nhiều đến nỗi bị ốm.

cấu trúc so that

He ate so much food that he became ill.

  1. Dùng với trạng từ

S + V + so + adv + that + S + V

Ví dụ:

The meteor storm passed so quickly that it went by in one minute.

=> Trận mưa băng đi qua quá nhanh đến nỗi chỉ kết thúc sau một phút

  1. Dùng với danh từ số nhiều đếm được

S + V+ so many/ few + plural/ countable noun + that + S + V

Ví dụ:

She has so many hats that she spends much time choosing the suitable one.

=> Cô ấy có nhiều mũ đến nỗi cố ấy mất rất nhiều thời gian để chọn lựa một chiếc thích hợp

  1. Dùng với danh từ không đếm được

S + V + so much/ little + uncountable noun + that + S + V

Ví dụ:

He had so much money that he didn’t know what to do with it.

=> Anh ta có quá nhiều tiền đến nỗi anh ấy không biết làm gì với nó.

Cấu trúc Such…that

S + V + such + (a/an) + adj + noun + that + S + V

Về mặt ngữ nghĩa cấu trúc such that giống với so that và hoàn toàn có thể dùng để thay thế nhau.

Ví dụ:

It was such a beautiful meteor storm that we watched it all night.

=> Đó là một trận mưa sao băng đẹp khiến chúng tôi ngắm nhìn nó cả đêm.

cấu trúc such that

It was such a beautiful meteor storm that we watched it all night.

It was such an amazing sight that we’ll never forget it.

=> Đó là một cảnh tượng thú vị khiến chúng tôi sẽ không bao giờ quên được nó.

Xem thêm: As soon as, as long as, as well as và as far as là gì?

Viết lại câu dùng So that, such that

Với So that

Cách nối câu dùng so…that

  • Trước adj/adv nếu có too, so, very,quite…thì bỏ
  • Nếu có a lot of ,lots of thì phải đổi thành much,many
  • Sau that viết lại toàn bộ mệnh đề

Ví dụ:

He is very strong .He can lift the box.

=> He is so strong that he can lift the box.

He ate a lot of food. He became ill.

=> He ate so much food that he became ill.

He bought lots of books .He didn’t know where to put them.

=> He bought so many books that he didn’t know where to put them.

Với Such that

Cách nối câu dùng such…that

  • Trước adj/adv nếu có too, so, very, quite…thì bỏ
  • Nếu danh từ là số ít hoặc không đếm được thì không dùng (a/an)
  • Nếu sau adj không có danh từ thì lấy danh từ ở đầu câu vào rồi thế đại từ vào chủ từ.

Ví dụ:

He is a very lazy boy. No one likes him.

=> He is such a lazy boy that no one likes him.

The coffee is too hot. I can’t drink it.

Sau chữ hot không có danh từ nên phải đem coffee vào, coffee không đếm được nên không dùng a/an.

=> It is such hot coffee that I can’t drink it.

Her voice is very soft. Everyone likes her.

=> She has such a soft voice that everyone likes her.

Nếu trước danh từ có much, many thì phải đổi thành a lot of.

Ví dụ:

He bought many books. He didn’t know where to put them.

=> He bought such a lot of books that he didn’t know where to put them.

Các dạng đề thường gặp với Too to, engough to, so that, such that

1) ĐỔI TỪ SO…THAT => SUCH….THAT:

Cách làm:

Thêm such (a, an) đem tính từ xuống, đem danh từ xuống, từ that trở đi viết lại hết

=> ĐẠI TỪ + BE SUCH (A, AN) ADJ + N + THAT CLAUSE

The book is so interesting that I have read it many times.

=> It is such an interesting book that I have read it many times.

Note: Nếu danh từ là số ít hoặc không đếm được thì không có a, an

2) ĐỔI TỪ SO…THAT => TOO…TO:

Cách làm:

  • Thêm tính từ vào, bỏ can’t, couldn’t lấy từ động từ trở đi
  • Nếu chủ từ 2 câu khác nhau thì thêm phần for sb
  • Nếu túc từ câu sau giống chủ từ câu đầu thì bỏ túc từ đó đi

=> S + BE + TOO + adj + (FOR SB) TO INF…

The water is so hot that I can’t drink it.

=> The water is too hot for me to drink.

– Nếu đổi nguợc lại từ TOO…TO sang SO…THAT thì thường sai nhất là việc quên thêm túc từ vào và chia sai thì

3) ĐỔI TỪ TOO…TO + V => ENOUGH:

Cách làm:

  • Dùng tính từ phản nghĩa + enough
  • Viết lại hết phần sau

He is too weak to run fast

=> He isn’t strong enough to run fast.

Bài tập áp dụng

I. Chọn đáp án đúng

  1. It was …………………. hot that we didn’t go out.

A. so            B. such           C. very

2. She is ……………….. old to work.

A. very           B. too           C. so

3. The tea was …………………. hot.

A. too           B. very           C. Either could be used here

4. The milk was …………………. good that we couldn’t stop drinking it.

A. very           B. too           C. so

5. It’s ………………… terrible weather.

A. such           B. so           C. Either could be used here

6. She is looking ………………….. older.

A. so           B. so much           C. Either could be used here

7. It was ………………….. warm when we were in Vienna.

A. very           B. so

8. He spoke ………………… fast that nobody could understand.

A. so           B. very           C. too

9. Would you be ………………….. kind as to tell me the time?

A. so           B. very           C. too

10. He is a ………………….. intelligent child.

A. very           B. so           C. too

II. Hoàn thành câu sử dụng: so & such

  1. The pan was__________ hot that I nearly dropped it!
  2. Jones was __________a kind man that I was sad when he moved to another town.
  3. We have __________ many pets that sometimes it’s really noisy.
  4. Alicia is __________ good at basketball that I think she could be a professional.
  5. There was __________ a lot of smoke that I couldn’t see.
  6. Tyrone ran __________fast that no one had a chance in the race.
  7. Cherie is __________popular that everyone wants to be friends with her.
  8. Would you like to have __________long hair that you can sit on it?

III. Viết lại câu mà không làm thay đổi nghĩa

1) The room is so tidy that it took us one hour to clean it.

=> It is ….

2) The man is so fool that no one took any notice of him.

=> He is ….

3) The film is so long that they can’t broadcast it on one night.

=> It is …..

4) The books are so interesting that we have read them many times.

=> They are…..

5) The news was so bad that she burst into tears on hearing it.

=> It was….

6) The food was so hot that it turned my tongue.

=> It was…..

7) There is so much rain that we can’t go out.

=> There is such….

8) The boy is so fat that every calls him Stuffy.

=> He is ….

9) The milk is so excellent that all the children want some more.

=> It is ….

10) The weather was so warm that they had a walk in the garden.

=> It was….

11) There were so many people in the hall that we couldn’t see him.=> There were such…

12) The match was so exciting that all the fans shouted loudly.

=> It was…

13) They drank so much coffee that they couldn’t sleep all night.

=> They drunk such…..

14) Alice had so many exercises to do that she couldn’t go out.

=> Alice had such…..

15) The woman was so poor that she needed everyone’s help.

=> She was …..

 

Đáp án

I.

  1. A – It was so hot that we didn’t go out.
  2. B – She is too old to work.
  3. A,B – The tea was too / very hot. (Too can be used to talk about a negative extreme. Very is also possible here.)
  4. C – The milk was so good that we couldn’t stop drinking it.
  5. A – It is such terrible weather.
  6. B – She is looking so much older. (Before a comparative form we use so much, not so.)
  7. A – It was very warm when we were in Vienna. (To simply give information, we use very.)
  8. A – He spoke so fast that nobody could understand.
  9. A – Would you be so kind as to tell me the time?
  10. A – He is a very intelligent child.

II.

  1. So
  2. Such
  3. So
  4. So
  5. Such
  6. So
  7. So
  8. Such

III.

1) The room is so tidy that it took us one hour to clean it.

=> It is such a tidy room that it took us one hour to clean it.

2) The man is so fool that no one took any notice of him.

=> He is such a fool man that no one took any notice of him.

3) The film is so long that they can’t broadcast it on one night.

=> It is such a long film that they can’t broadcast it on one night.

4) The books are so interesting that we have read them many times.

=> They are such interesting books that we have read them many times.

5) The news was so bad that she burst into tears on hearing it.

=> It was such bad news that she burst into tears on hearing it.

6) The food was so hot that it turned my tongue.

=> It was such hot food that it turned my tongue.

7) There is so much rain that we can’t go out.

=> There is such a lot of rain that we can’t go out.

8) The boy is so fat that every calls him Stuffy.

=> He is such a fat boy that every calls him Stuffy.

9) The milk is so excellent that all the children want some more.

=> It is such excellent milk that all the children want some more.

10) The weather was so warm that they had a walk in the garden.

=> It was such warm weather that they had a walk in the garden

11) There were so many people in the hall that we couldn’t see him.

=> There were such a lot of people in the hall that we couldn’t see him.

12) The match was so exciting that all the fans shouted loudly.

=> It was such an exciting match that all the fans shouted loudly.

13) They drank so much coffee that they couldn’t sleep all night.

=> They drunk such a lot of coffee that they couldn’t sleep all night.

14) Alice had so many exercises to do that she couldn’t go out.

=> Alice had such a lot of exercises to do that she couldn’t go out.

15) The woman was so poor that she needed everyone’s help.

=> She was such a poor woman that she needed everyone’s

Đó là tất cả những gì bạn cần biết về bốn cấu trúc trên, còn điều gì thắc mắc hãy để lại comment bên dưới để mình biết nhé. Và đừng quên ghé thăm website Báo Song Ngữ thường xuyên.

 

 

 

Cấu trúc Too to, Enough to, So that, Such that: Cách dùng & những chú ý
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